By definition, only a few heroes fit the dictionary definition of Sniper. Some players complain that Overwatch has a "sniper problem," as those who play these characters well are really difficult to counter. They watch highlight videos released by Overwatch streamers who deal insane damage, picking off enemy heroes one by one. On the flip side of this coin, though, is snipers tend to work on their own, which works in other games. But Blizzard designed Overwatch to be a team game, so the sniper playstyle may also be terrible when played selfishly.
Despite this, snipers still make a solid choice, and though someone will always have a negative comment for their teammates, there is no "sniper problem" in Overwatch 2.
Widowmaker, aka Widow, is the only DPS hero who actually comes with a sniper rifle, the Widow's kiss. She plays mostly at long-range, with all of her abilities designed to grant her a favorable peaking position. She is, though, one of the most hated or loved teammates depending on her skill level.
A good player who chooses Widow is one who hits their headshots consistently, giving their team the numerical and support advantage. Whenever Widows shoot, they should be landing a headshot, with the exception of follow-up shots, which should only be used just after a headshot to pick an enemy player off.
What makes Widow the best sniper is her primary attack, which if hit correctly, can eliminate an enemy with a single shot. Landing a headshot will cause a 2.5x critical damage modifier fully charged. After charging for 1.4 seconds, her shot does maximum damage: 120 damage for a body shot and 300 damage for headshots. With a damage boost ability, those numbers go up to 156 on bodyshots and 390 on headshots. For most heroes, this is an instant kill. Though it won't kill the heroes with the most health in the game, this is significant damage to tanks, as well, allowing a person playing Widow to easily follow up their hit with another shot, tearing through all hero roles.
Widow players will primarily lock into support or DPS targets, peaking behind corners or their tanks, or using the Grabbling Hook ability to launch themselves in the air, allowing them to shoot at vast distances. This ability also allows Widow to escape flanking enemies, making Widow mobile in order to avoid enemy damage.
Widow also has two abilities that help players get instant kills by enabling an in-game wallhack. Widow's Venom Mine allows her to see enemies who trigger the mine to be seen through walls in a red glow. Additionally, her Infra-Sight ultimate shows every enemy hero's heat signatures through objects and walls for 15 seconds.
As a distance sniper, Widow's advantage can at the same time be a disadvantage depending on the accuracy of the player. When someone locks into Widow, they need to land their headshots or you may as well be playing a Mercy. Accuracy in aim is key to a good Widow because if they aren't getting a single-shot kill, the enemy players can easily escape behind their tank or find a cover location to heal up. A headshot and body shot can be the difference between a win and a loss.
Though less of a traditional sniper, Ashe still acts as a dependable sniper, hitting headshots at a distance while capable of supporting her team in mid-ranged fights. Just like Widow, though, her effectiveness depends on player aim, with much of the damage she can deal depending on headshots.
One of Blizzard's newer heroes, Ashe's main weapon, The Viper, can be used to aim down sights, giving her a zoomed-in point of view with higher damage, at the sacrifice of fire rate and movement speed. Though her damage reaches a maximum of 150 damage with a headshot, which can only kill a Tracer in one hit, her fire rate is much faster than Widow's.
Though Ashe's primary fire can't one-tap most enemy heroes like Widow can, her Bob Ultimate puts pressure on the enemy team at close range, something Widow isn't able to do. Bob is a 1000-HP robot that knocks enemies into the air, then shoots them with his cannons. He runs forward toward the position Ashe aims. He can easily widdle enemy teams' health bars so Ashe can pick them off one by one with shots at range. One terrible thing about Bob, though, is that you can accidentally point in the wrong direction
Ana is the only other hero in the game that comes with a sniper rifle, though hers is more based on healing than damage. In comparison to Ashe and Widow, Ana does much less damage, as her weapons do not even allow headshots. However, she still ranks as a strong sniper-range hero, as she can save teammates while dishing out a good amount of damage.
Another hero who likes to take shots at a distance, Ana uses her sniper to both kill enemy heroes and defend her teammates. Her sniper rifle doesn't deal out crazy amounts of damage, her Biotic Rifle dishing 70 damage over 0.58 seconds. Landing a shot on a teammate will heal them for 70 health over the same amount of time.
Ana also has huge potential to change team fights and games in her team's favor. If her biotic grenade hits an enemy hero, they cannot be healed at all. If hitting an allied player, the biotic grenade immediately heals for 100 while increasing healing by 50% for three seconds. Thrown at a distance or in close-range situations, this grenade has the ability to save yourself and your teammates while making enemy teams vulnerable.
No matter which sniper you play, each hero's play style can make or break a team composition.